(Branch: Theoretical Physics)

(Copyright© Vicher Zdenek 2007 - 2024)


author: Zdenek Vicher



A few years ago I started to study axioms of the theory of relativity. During this study

I found some fundamental mistakes that led me to try to create theory that would explain

physical effects which the theory of relativity explains but without these fundamental

mistakes. The only one solution that led to this aim was to go in physics 100 years back to

ether. After several years of research I created a theory which I would like to introduce to

them who are interested in these questions.


Mistakes in the theory of relativity that I found during the study of this theory.


Description of  the first mistake (M1)


Geometry of one of three possible models of universe that results from general theory of

relativity is the one whose geometric space is static fourth-dimensional symmetrical object.

This geometric space can be mathematically expressed by easy quadratic.



and its volume is



and it is then three-dimensional object


x1, x2, x3, x4       four coordinates perpendicular on each other in linear four-dimensional space

Rv                           radius of universe

Vv                    volume of universe

3d                    three-dimensional incurvate space

4d                    Four-dimensional linear space


for watcher in this space the shortest distance is abscissa whose interpretation is circular

section in „4d“ with radius „Rv


  Inercial movement (equally rectilinear) one of the ponderable objects against another

ponderable object in this space can proceed only around some of these circles with radius

Rv“ in „4d“, this circle I will call main circle in „4d“.

  From the view of watcher in this space in „3d“ inercial movement is the travel on the


  So there is time „t“ in equally relictilinear movement of ponderable object in speed „v“ (by

the view of watcher in this space), in which the object accomplish movement on the main

bisector (in the view „4d“).


this time is set by affinity



hypothesis : (everything proceeds in the space stated above)


  On one bisector there are moving against two ponderable objects in speed „v“ in

equally relictilinear movement. These objects I will call „obj1“ and „obj2“ in each of them

There are placed clocks. If both of object meets both clocks zeroize.


  Now I will elicit what time there will be on both clocks, when they meet for the second time.

„obj1“ I will consider as an object in tranquil scale and „obj2“ as an object that is moving by

inercial movement in speed „v“ against „obj1“.  In the time of the second meeting the time

on the clocks in „obj1“ will be termed „t1" and the time on clocks in „obj2“ as „t2".


according to STR (because it is inercial movement) will be




  Now I will consider „obj2“ as tranquil and „obj1“ as the one, that is moving by inercial

movement in speed „v“ against „obj2“. My choice is the scale that is tranquil and that in

movement times on the clocks can not change and so with using the previous calculation

according to STR will be




time „" from the first calculation is different to

time „" from the second calculation so




This it the proof of mathematical-logical mistake STR in its statement about relativity of

physical processes.


Description of the second mistake (M2)


In quadratics STR there is the transformation of time between tranquil and inercial scale



from this transformation follows that if there comes any process in distance „x‘ " from the

beginning of the scale in the direction of its movement in time „t‘ = 0 ", the same process

comes in tranquil scale a time later




if in time shorter than „Δt " the beginning of inercial scale would come to the position, that the

coordinate „x‘ " coalesce with place where the same process will have been in tranquil scale, and it

would become tranquil scale, there would happen the same process in this scale for the second time

which would lead to breaking the law about preservation of energy.


This is the proof of the mathematical-logical mistake STR in its statement about constant

speed of light


Theory that tries to remove the mistakes and that I called




Fundamental content of the theory


< universe is four-dimensional static spherical symmetrical object, all filled with ether with

elemental particles.


< tranquil ether is absolute space and o movement of ether is caused only by essential

particles of mass that are moving in this ether and billows it, as for example the water is

billowed by the subjects moving in it.


< field of particles is spread by constant speed in this absolute space independently on speed

of these particles


< by the moving of consistent objects in absolute space there happens the reducing of its

physical proportion in all 3 dimensions compared to their proportions in calm in absolute



Detailed description of the theory


  If in universe the energy would be spread only by field, there would be for long distances,

regarding to electrically neutral deuterium, which is overbearing in space, energy spread in

that way would be deficient. That is why the whole universe is filled by little faultless bullets

without electrical charge, much smaller than electron, that touch each other. These particles I

called „quantions“because they quantize energy. So that the smallest particle – electron would

overcome one layer of quantions it has to overcome minimal energy barrier, then there is set

the smallest possible energy that can be transferred in space. In that absolute space the

fluctuation is spread by mechanical way, it means in different way than in the field.

  The speed of spreading that energy is constant (for example speed of the sound it the air) and

then speed of light in vacuum is marked as ", because these quantions are the vacuum.

Not to happen to various spreading both of forms of energy there is a law, the only one on

which I will lay bellow.


Law 1 (L1)





  In this theory is gravitation of superposition of electrical powers, that is stood on static

model of atom (its descriptions is theme of this article) and it is then spread by the same speed

as electric field, and it is not the quality of incurvated space, because as I will try to explain

bellow there doesn’t happen to any deformation.

  Maximum speed of the particle, that can be speeded up only by field, can be only brought

near the speed of field in absolute space and it is „c“. Relative speed of particles moving

against or apart from each other then can be most brought near the speed „2c“.

  From (L1) flows that for speeding up the particles to higher and higher speed there is need to

more and more energy regarding that the pressure of the field speeds it up and it is then

smaller as the relative speed of the field against the particle is smaller.

  From this immediately flows that with the speeding up speed of particle grows up its

centrifugal mass. Then it explains why light is spread by constant speed independently on

speed of the source of light.


  By absolute tranquil space we mean whole universe of space filled by quantions that are not

moving (for example still water) in which there are moving particles. To the moving of

quantions happen only by transit of particles.

 Universe is circumference of four-dimensional sphere with final volume „2π2Rv3(„Rv“ is

radius of universe), that follows from the theory of spherical symmetrical bodies (geometry of

Riemman) has neither beginning nor ending.

 We can imagine it, when we take away one dimension, as circumference of sphere with

radius „Rv. Circumference of that sphere has final surface but does not have its beginning

and ending anywhere. In such a space the “hydrostatical pressure“ of quantions is the same

everywhere because every point of space has the same position to other points of space.


  Quantions then explain double character of light and return the original mass of space to

astrophysics. Regarding that voluminous space objects, as for example Sun, extrude so much

quantions around itself that would be on their place, so it happens to change the optical

density of the environment of the quantions and it happens from the biggest density around

circumference of this object step by step further of the circumference to roughly normal

density which causes effects that are attributed to deformation of space in GTR.

  In this case it is concerned deformation of optical space of universe.


  As example I mention flexure of light of distant star „s“  that comes through the closeness

of Sun „S“ to the watcher on Earth „E“ (pic. 1)


  Then the existence of ether impeaches wave theory of substance. This theory rose on the

basic of attempt when to the transit of electrons on fluorescing shade in the apparatus there

was an obstacle.

  If in the obstacle there was one slot, on the shade there would not appear any interferences

and if in the obstacle there would be two slots, interferences would appear on the shade. So

the scientists wisely came to a conclusion and mathematically proved (because mathematics

bears everything) that even one electron oriented to one slot causes interferences because it

catches to go through both of the slots at a time.


  With the help of ether we can explain this effect in this way:

By the moving of electrons there rises mechanical fluctuation of quantions that comes through

the second slot and it strikes upon to the shade from the other side which causes the



  Decantation of perihelion of planets can be explained by the fact that around Sun there is

created whirl of quantions by its rotation that bends in the perihelion of planets. Mostly where

his intensity is the biggest, it means near to planet Mercury.


  Hereafter I will explain negative results of Michelson’s attempts of the second order.

Description of these attempts and the reason of their application is described for example in



Explanation of negative results of Michelson’s attempts without dilatation of time.


  By the moving of consistent body in space happens to change of its geometry so that the

powers keeping this body together, that were in balance when the body was calm, stayed in

balance during the moving too. Because it is spread by constant speed in absolute space, by

the moving of consistent body in absolute space happens to change of relative speed of the

field against particles in all three dimensions. By this the proportion of powers, that keeps the

body together, are changing and it is happening to changes of proportions of the body.

  By which way the geometry of the body is changing can be proved just on basics of negative

results of Michelson’s attempts.


  In tranquil scale let the rod be its one ending in the beginning of tranquil scale (pic. 2) and

the second ending has coordinates (x, y, z) and on its ending there is a mirror. If the light

Impulse goes out from the beginning of the scale, the reflected light comes back in time



  In inercial scale, not to happen to changes of the picture on interferometer of apparatus of

Michelson’s type, must the time „t1of the transit of light impulse from the beginning of the

rod to the mirror, where the rod has coordinates (x1, y1, z1) totaled with the time that flows to

the transit of reflected light from the mirror to the beginning of the rod „t2, be the same in

tranquil scale.


so it must be accepted that



solution of transformation of coordinates changing the proportions of moving rod so that the

affinity above would pay lead to the quadratics bellow (Q1).





 ,      ,     


a, b      unknown linear coefficients


result of the solution of these quadratics is the transformation of coordinates of moving rod

against calm rod, and it is set by these quadratics (TR1)


 ,       ,      


and the terms for times „t1 and „t2are




x, y, z              coordinates of the end of the rod in tranquil scale        

x1, y1, z1           coordinates of the end of the rod in inercial scale


  So if the apparatus is compound similar to in Michelson’s attempts even from rods from

various distances the time of transit of sent and reflected light of each rod will be the same

and independent to turning and the speed of the apparatus. This naturally leads to that there

won’t happen to any changes of interferential figure that is final sum of these lights.


  Above stated quadratics holds for the body moving by equally relictinear movement

in constant speed against the speed of other tranquil scale. There is evident that if the body is

moving by any way, the body is confirming its shape to keep the balance of the powers that

keep the body together.

  Regarding that the changes of position similar apparatus are against tha speed of light very

small, the geometry of the shape of the body will stabilize before there would happen to watch

the changes of the picture on interferometer even in not inercial movement.

  Because the geometry of the body is confirming to its movement, the doesn’t happen to

deformation of space as in GTR because all the effect stated above are only the result (L1).


Transformation affinities for watcher in the moving scale (TR2).


transformation of coordinates


 ,             ,          


  These transformation affinities goes from (TR1) and they are estabilished on that

consideration. Watcher won’t recognize the change of proportions because in the same way

his apparatuses and his sense organs lessen, so it seems to him the same and he evaluates

them as bigger as they are smaller.



  Elicitation other transformation affinities I will reduce only to axis in the direction of

movement of inercial scale that is from the view of investigation most of the physical effects

the most important.


transformation of time


  During eliciting of the transformation of time we have to realize the fact that if happens,

either in tranquil or in moving scale in any point and any time, any effect, for watcher this

effect happens“ when the effects of the effect will display in the place of his watching. Till

this time for watcher and his locality this effect just doesn’t exist”.

  Every effect in universe is compounded by effect on the level of elementary particles and it

is spread by final speed c” in absolute space.

  If any effect happens together in both sides in other place than in its beginning, in the time

when the effects  display for the watcher in tranquil scale, in the moving scale there will be

displayed effects of other effect for the watcher.


  I will explain this time divergence by following mind progress with the help of picture

(pic. 3).


  Let in the time „t = t = 0“ in coordinates “x” in tranquil scale happen any effect. In the

time when the effects of this effect are displayed in the beginning if the tranquil scale, the

beginning of the inercial scale will reach to the distance „v·t" from the beginning of the scale

and there are displayed the effects of the effect whose effect are displayed in the time „Δt“ set

by the terms that flows from the picture.


 ,            ,              


  Physical time is set by the rate of the total of time of action and reaction of the effect in

nature. Because these are on the level of elemental particles spread by constant speed and

because both tranquil scale and in inercial scale their total is the same as I have proved in the

state about negative results of Michelson’s attempts,  the physical time flows the same in

tranquil or in inercial scale.


so it must be accepted that




a          unknown linear coefficient


and so that




This transofmation of time is only the result of (L1).


affinities for compounding speeds (TR3)


from (TR2) flows


 ,          ,        


ux         speed of the mass body in tranquil scale

ux           speed of the mass body in inercial scale


rising of inertial weight

  Mass objects from the physical view together ordinarily interag on the level of fields of their

particles not by direct contact on particles, if so there would for example in the reflex collision

of two spheres happen in the place of their contact to thermonuclear reactions.

  To the rising of inertial weight happens because in inercial scale moving by inertial speed

„v" is different relative speed of the field of particles against self particle than in tranquil


  If it happens to changes of position of particle, the effects of this movement will display

in inercial scale in different time than in tranquil scale. Detailed description was in treatise

transformations of time”.

  In eliciting of compounding speeds of inercial scales I will exclude influence of subjective

sensation of watcher (pic. 3).




 ,          ,


ux         speed of the mass body in tranquil scale

ux           speed of the mass body in inercial scale


  Because resulting compounding of speeds is the same as in STR and because the rising of

weight is dependent on that affinity, I won’t derive it. Deriving on the base of collision of two

flexible particles  Tolmanov’s and Levisov’s is for example in (Lt1).


for rising of inertial weight is then the term



m         inertial weight in inercial scale

m0        inertial weight in tranquil scale


  Axiom of equivalence of mass and energy is based on rising of inertial weight and it is then

formulated same as in STR


Comparing some results in STR.



< Totaling speeds in the direction on moving on inercial scale is same as in STR so the same

will be even Fresnel’s entraining coefficient.


< Doppler’s effect is caused that the watcher moving by the speed v in axis „x" in tranquil

scale will se bigger length of transverse wave in tranquil scale according to affinity




< Rising of inertial mass in depend on speed of mass object is the same as in STR and that is

why it will result the same as Compton’s and photo-electric effect.


< Longer length of life” for example of mions is caused by rising inertial weight of these

particles and so even proportionally bigger energy necessary to their disruption and so longer

time of appealing powers causing this disruption.



Used symbols



π                      circular constant

c                      speed of light in vacuum

x, y, z, t           coordianetes and time of tranquil scale

x, y, z, t        coordianetes and time of inercial scale

pic. x               picture x

STR                 special theory of relativity

GTR                general theory of relativity

Mx                   mistake x

TRx                 transformation x

Qx                   quadration x

Lx                    law x



Legacy to literature



Lt1                  Uvod do teorie relativity, Jan Horsky, Praha 1975





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